TO AVOID, FIND AND SOLVE SENTENCE ERRORS...

These FLAG WORDS (red and purple) help identify and signal possible sentence errors, because words (nouns and/or verbs!) which occur AFTER these pronouns are usually dependent on the main subject and main verb for meaning--if they are there and if there is only ONE set of them....

PRONOUNS refer to or depend on other information for full meaning. These impersonal pronouns (not the personal pronouns such as "he. she, I, us," etc.)  signal information dependent on the core subject/verb.  These connecting and introductory words are also dependent on other words/ideas/actions, so cannot be main subjects and main verbs...

PRONOUNS

  that
  which
  where
  why
  what
  whose
  whatever
  whoever
  whomever
  other  CONNECTING or INTRODUCTORY WORDS...   
     accordingly,     furthermore,    moreover,       similarly,
     also,                  hence,               namely,           still,
     anyway,            however,          nevertheless, then,
     besides,            incidentally,     next,                 thereafter,
     certainly,           indeed,             nonetheless,   therefore,
     consequently   instead,            now,                  thus,
     finally,               likewise,           otherwise,        undoubtedly,
     further,              meanwhile.

             + though, even though, in spite of the fact that...

Prepositions primarily LOCATE the focus of the sentence, or subordinate ideas/information, in space or time; they are not the things or actions needed to qualify a group of words as a sentence:

  • aboard
  • about
  • above
  • across
  • after
  • against
  • along
  • amid
  • among
  • anti
  • around
  • as
  • at
  • before
  • behind
  • below
  • beneath
  • beside
  • besides
  • between
  • beyond
  • but
  • by
  • concerning
  • considering
  • despite
  • down
  • during
  • except
  • excepting
  • excluding
  • following
  • for
  • from
  • in
  • inside
  • into
  • like
  • minus
  • near
  • of
  • off
  • on
  • onto
  • opposite
  • outside
  • over
  • past
  • per
  • plus

    regarding

  • round
  • save
  • since
  • than
  • through
  • to
  • toward
  • towards
  • under
  • underneath
  • unlike
  • until
  • up
  • upon
  • versus
  • via
  • with
  • within
  • without

Action words connected to these pronouns or prepositions in sense/meaning are not part of the independent clause/complete sentence, only part of the prepositional phrase.

Clauses can be INDEPENDENT or DEPENDENT (have nouns/subjects and actions/verbs, but are CONNECTED to one of these words that DEFER full sense to the core sentence/independent clause. Phrases are incomplete in meaning, even though nouns or verbs may be part of the word group. Here are some examples:

  • Mother understood, what she wanted to know, after the show was over.
  • They realized, (that) there was no other route around the wreck.
  • Though they were late, Bill and Carol arrived in time for dinner.
  • However, Mr. Brown wanted everyone to win.
  • Near the lake, the car ran-out of gas, so walking was the only choice.
  • The only choice, at that time, was to start over.